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Although I was a free thinker when I joined SPA in Delhi, I had some notional opinions against the monarchy system in Nepal. My naïve consciousness told me to reject monarchy on two strong basis even before I became politically active. My association with secular, republic and multi-party with India at an early age made me question the  about monolithic and , tradition based authority of monarchy in Nepal. Authority tThat it was considered above law, I could not digest it. Secondly, I being gender conscious I could not understand why only male is entitled to the throne. I started questioning why my only brother was given privilege of not only joining St. XZavier Private school but also getting of getting admitted to the hostel while we the six sisters were sent to government- run school shuttling from home to school everyday. Also I was questioning why he became automatic heir hire to the huge house along with acres of land that belonged to my father?. In short , I started seeing sons as mini monarchs in every households and daughters and wives as mini proletariats in Nepal. Just as I saw average prince suddenly becoming a powerful king I had also seen many mundane men turning very strong macho men after they got married. Sadly I also saw many talented smart educated girls gone inot lost in oblivion after they got married. So before I met BRB I already had prejudice against monarch in Nepal.

My association with BRB who too happened to be anti-monarch brought us together and closer all the more. Our attraction to Mohan Bikram Singh’s Party Masal was based on the fact that he had tabled (advocated) for an electionof  to the constituent assembly even when other communist leaders tabled (campaigned) for re-establishment of parliamentary system or dissolved parliamentary system when king Mahendra staged coup against elected government in 1950. Just as during Rana regime to be anti- Rana would automatically mean to be congress similarly during Monarchy if one was anti- monarchy it was automatically taken as being communist. So we became communist. It was after getting involved in 2 LS (?) I realized that within the communist movement there were Raimajhi line and Pushpa Lal line. Raimajhi line considered king to be progressive force as he represented patriotic force with which communists must form united alliance, . wWhereas Pushpalal considered parliamentary force, NC as democratic force with whom communists must forge united front to fight against monarchy. During Panchayat era Raimajhi line dominated in communist movement as a result the NC had been suspecteding communists as pro -royal force. Communists on the other hand had been suspecting NC as stooges of Indian expansionism as they kept harping on about parliamentary system practiced in India.

When we came back to Nepal wWe took active participation in 1990 people’s movement against one Party system,  the Panchayat system. The People’s Movement gave constitutional monarchical parliamentary system. Though this system brought multi party system in to operation but the King still wielded welded power as he and his family subject was considered above law and he was the executive head of military force. Not satisfied with constitutional monarchical parliamentary system we joined PW to bring republic state.

It is to be noted that three cease –fire in order to hold peace talk failed precisely because we kept insisting on holding CA election which went counter to monarchy’s interest. The Royal massacre of king Birendra and his family in June 2001 paved way for weakening of monarchy system compounded by king Gyanendra’s recurrent mistakes. At the same time within the Party BRB’s line of associating with the parliamentary parties to vanquish defeat monarchy started gaining ground. This resulted in signing of 12-point understanding between Seven Party Alliance and UCPN (Maoist). This opened door for us to take journey from bullet to ballotballet.

Journey from Bullet to BallotBallet was naturally more difficult as ballet ballot journey went through many jig jags unlike the straight bullet journey. The first step was signing of 12-point understanding, which, was concluded between the seven political Parties and the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in November 22, 2005 in New Delhi, India. NC was yet not ready to reach at republic. So it carefully emphasized on achieving full democracy while attacking autocratic monarchy. It clearly stipulated full democracy through a forward-looking restructuring of the state to resolve the problems related to class, caste, gender, region, political, economic, social and cultural, by bringing the autocratic monarchy to and end.

12-point understanding created conducive atmosphere for launching the historic People’s Movement II (April 2006). On April 24, 2006 the king Gyanendra was forced to address give proclamation to the nation saying that the source of Power of Kingdom of Nepal was in the Nepalese people, and that sovereign state power of Nepal is inherentwith  in the people of Nepal. He was forced to reinstate the House of Representatives, which was dissolved on May 22, 2002, which, was functioning under the 1990 constitution.  This was immediately followed by May 18, 2006 Proclamation of the House of Representatives which proclaimed itself sovereign for exercising all rights until other constitutional arrangements were introduced. It went on to state that all

The executive powers of the state of Nepal should be vested on the Council of Ministers, whereby ‘The Majesty ‘s Government” would be referred as the ‘Government of Nepal’. Similarly the name, ‘Royal Nepal Army’ changed to ‘Nepal Army’. At the same time Rajparishad ( Royal Council) was repealed and replaced by the House of Representatives. It was also declared that Nepal should be a secular state.

Monarchy from then on stood suspended in the post-April 2006. Accordingly GPK was reinstated as the PM. Amongst many understandings reached, 8-point understanding (June 16, 2006) was important as it stipulated formation of interim constitution, created environment for comprehensive peace accord, formation of interim government, announce the date of CA election, dissolve the House of Representative to form alternative body by consensus and dissolve the People’s Governments formed by the CPN (Maoist).  This paved way for signing historic Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA) between the GON and CPN (Maoist) in November 21, 2006. CPA paved way for the formation of Interim Legislative-Parliament, which would formally end the parallel structure so far, had been operating in the country. But before such formation interim constitution had to be arrived. This resulted in formation of an Interim Constitution Drafting Committee under the chairmanship of retired Supreme Court Justice Laxman Aryal.

Three key members complimented the committee: Baburam Bhattarai from CPN (M), Krishna Sitaula from NC and Pradeep Gyawali from UML. They were the main team who worked day and night to arrive at consensus for an interim constitution (2007). Once the interim-

Constitution arrived through consensus there was debate as to which body should own it: the old House of Representatives or the new Interim Legislative-Parliament? It was finally decided to produce the interim constitution before the House of Representative (it was dissolved the same day of announcing interim constitution) and ratified by the Interim Legislative-Parliament body (formed on the same day of dissolution of HoR). The historic day was chosen as 15 January 2007. The Interim Legislative-Parliament body was formed with 85 NC members, 83 UML members and 83 Maoist members. By April 2007 the Maoists had joined government lead by Girija Prasad Koirala (GPK).

There was a great debate on the nature of our entry: the parliamentary parties hailed the occasion as Maoist entering the old mainstream system while we said we were entering new mainstream system. Similarly there was a great debate on the nature of Interim body: Maoists named it as Interim Legislative body and the NC & UML named as Interim Parliament body.

Interim Constitution was a landmark achievement in Nepalese history as it departed from the past constitution in many fundamental ways. The preamble asserted the authority and the power of the people instead of king. It declared itself to become a Federal, Democratic, republic state by legally ending the monarchy. It shed it self away from Hindu country to become secular. Not only that restructuring of state in order to remove oppression based on class, caste, gender and region had been well stipulated.

Soon conflict started developing between the Maoists and parliamentary parties on the question of declaring republic and modality of election to the CA. The Maoists wanted to declare republic before going to CA election. Similarly they wanted announcement of full proportional representative form of election to CA. This resulted in Maoists withdrawing from the government for four months as a form of protest. Finally a mid way solution was arrived whereby mixed form of representative of election was agreed upon. Similarly it was decided to leave the fate of monarchy in the first meeting of elected CA through simple majority.

Finally the date of first constituent assembly was declaredon  in April 10, 2008. We won by thumping majority. Our Party came out the largest Party winning 120 seats through First Past the Post out of 240 seats. And we got 100 seats through Proportionate Representation out of total 335 seats. Similarly we got 9 nominated seats out of 26 seats. Thus we got 229 out of 601 seats. And we had the most inclusive CA members in terms of women’s, Dalit’s, Oppressed regional and ethnic participation. We also had many martyred and disappeared family cadres together with farmers and industrial background cadres and leaders joining CA.

Prachanda had won from Rolpa and Kathmandu. He became the first Prime Minister of republic democratic federal and secular state of Nepal (August 2008-May 2009). BRB had won from Gorkha getting the highest number of votes. I won from Kathmandu.

May 28, 2008 will be marked as a historic day (or night) for all the republic forces. It was the first meeting of CA. This day at 11.45 pm Government of Nepal tabled proposal for the implementation of republic.   It announced transformation of the inclusive and secular state into a federal democratic, republic with sovereignty and the state power being vested in Nepalese people. It nulled all the privileges of king and his family members distinct from common Nepalese citizens. It declared Jestha 15 as Republic Day to be celebrated throughout the country. Thumping majority passed the Declaration of republic. Only 4 CA members voted for Monarchy. I was however disappointed that the next day should have been celebrated with jubilance the historic achievement. Nun, NC, UML, Regional parties not even the Maoist came to street to celebrate the historic achievement!!!

I was happiest when Narayanhiti Darbar the royal palace was turned into national museum. My dream of seeing this palace turned into museum finally came true. Today when I travel in one of the roads surrounding the museum I remember those days (before 1990) when I used to take my daughter Manushi in cycle wishing some day this palace would turn into museum.

History of Peace Negotiation Talk

27 Oct 2000 Informal contact between then Deputy Prime Minister Ramchandra Paudel and Maoist Leader Rabindra Shrestha for peace process. The process was soon disrupted because of the controversial release of two Maoist Leaders from detention.

25 Jul 2001 Cease-fire announced by the government led by Mr. Sher Bahadur Deuba. Maoists also announced cease-fire on the same day, after the government’s announcement.

Peace Negotiator:

The Government Side:

  • Mr. Chiranjivi Wagley Convenor
  • Mr. Mahesh Acharya Member
  • Mr. Chakra P. Bastola Member
  • Mr. Vijay K. Gachhadar Member

The CPN (Maoist) Side:

  • Mr. Krishna Bahadur Mahara Convenor
  • Mr. Top Bahadur Rayamajhi Member
  • Mr. Agni Prasad Sapkota Member

Facilitator:

  • Mr. Padmaratna Tuladhar
  • Mr. Damannath Dhungana

30 Aug 2001 First round of peace talk between the government and the Maoists held in Godawari, Lalitpur.

14 Sep 2001 Second round of peace talk held in Thakurdwara, Bardia district.

13 Nov 2001 Third round of peace talks held in Godawari, Lalitpur again.

21 Nov 2001 Maoists unilaterally broke down the cease-fire.

3 Dec 2002 Maoists announced formation of ‘central dialogue team’.

Peace Negotiator of the Maoist Side:

  • Dr. Baburam Bhattarai Convenor
  • Mr. Ram Bahadur Thapa (Badal) Member
  • Mr. Krishna Bahadur Mahara Member
  • Mr. Dev Gurung Member
  • Mr. Matrika Yadav Member

29 Jan 2003: Announcement of cease-fire by both the government and the Maoists. Peace

Negotiator of the Government Side:

  • Mr. Badri Prasad Mandal Convenor
  • Mr. Ramesh Nath Pandey Member
  • Mr. Kamal Prasad Choulagai Member
  • Mr. Narayan Singh Pun Member
  • Dr. Upendra Devkota Member
  • Ms. Anuradha Koirala Member

Facilitator of Peace Talk:

  • Mr. Damannath Dhungana
  • Mr. Padmaratna Tuladhar
  • Mr. Shailendra Kumar Upadhyaya
  • Mr. Karnadhwaj Adhikary

13 Mar 2003: 22-points Code of Conduct was signed by the government and Maoists. Formation of a Monitoring Team led by representative of Nepal Human Rights Commission consisting 13 Members.

27 Apr 2003 First-round: of peace talk between the government and the Maoists held in Shankar Hotel, Kathmandu.

9 May 2003 Second-round of the peace talk held in the Shankar Hotel, Kathmandu.

30 May 2003 Lokendra Bahadur Chand resigned from the post of prime Minister.

4 June 2003 Mr. Surya Bahadur Thapa was appointed Prime Minister. Reformation of Talk Team and Facilitator as follows:

Peace Negotiator of the Government Side:

  • Dr. Prakash Chandra Lohani Convenor
  • Mr. Kamal Thapa Member

Peace Negotiator of the Maoist Side:

  • Dr. Baburam Bhattarai Convenor
  • Mr. Krishna Bahadur Mahara Member

Facilitator of Peace Talk:

  • Mr. Damannath Dhungana
  • Mr. Padmaratna Tuladhar

17 Aug 2003 Third-round of peace talks held in Hapure of Purandhara VDC, Dang District.

27 Aug 2003 Maoists broken down the ceasefire unilaterally. The statement issued by Prachanda, Chairman of the Maoists, stated that the significance of the ceasefire, peace talks and code of conduct has been ended.

12 Aug 2004 Formation of High Level Peace Committee and the Peace Secretariat by the Government.

23 Sep 2004 Deuba government formally called on the Maoists to come for dialogue.

24 Sep 2004 Maoists reactions to the government’s official call for peace dialogue. Maoists’ Chairman Prachanda, issuing a press statement, asked six questions regarding the status and legitimacy of Deuba government for holding peace talks.

25 Nov 2004 The government set January 13, 2005 as the deadline for the Maoists to come to the negotiating table. The government also decided that it will declare parliamentary elections otherwise.

27 Nov 2004 Maoists Chairman Prachanda, in a press statement, told that the declaration of timeline by the government is a conspiracy and threatening. He marked that peace talks could not proceed in the status quo.

16 Mar 2005 High Level Peace Committee was dissolved and the Peace Secretariat remains working with new TOR.

22 Nov 2005 The SPA and Maoist signed a 12-Point Understandings for Peoples movement and restoration of democracy in New Delhi, India.

6 Apr 2006 SPA declared a non-violent joint people’s movement and the Maoist support the peaceful movement.

21 Apr 2006 Royal address returned back the executive power to the people and offered SPA to form the government. SPA rejected the royal offer and declared the movement continues.

24 Apr 2006 the 19-day peaceful and non-violent movement turned successful and restoration of democracy by restoring the sovereignty of Nepal inherent to the people and reinstatement of the HOR.

26 Apr 2006 Three months unilateral Ceasefire declared by the Maoist.

28 Apr 2006 Mr. Girija Prasad Koirala was appointed as Prime Minister from NC and as a leader of SPA.

30 Apr 2006 the HOR passed the motion of Constituent Assembly unanimously.

3 May 2006 the government reciprocated the Ceasefire Announcement and invites the Maoist in peace Talk. The government also withdrew the terrorist tag and red corner notice to the Maoist for confidence building.

10 May 2006 Maoists announced formation of ‘Negotiation Talk Team’.

Peace Negotiator of the Maoist Side:

  • Mr. Krishna Bahadur Mahara Convenor
  • Mr. Dinanath Sharma Member
  • Mr. Dev Gurung Member

19 May 2006 The Government announced ‘Negotiation Talk Team’. Consisting of:

  • Mr. Krishna Prasad Sitaula Convenor
  • Mr. Pradip Gyawali Member
  • Mr. Ramesh Lekhak Member

Formation of a ‘Peace Negotiation Coordination and Advisory Committee’

26 May 2006 First round of negotiation talk held at Gokarna Forest Golf Resort, Kathmandu and reached an agreement on 25-Points Ceasefire Code of Conduct.

12 Jun 2006 Formation of Peace Committee comprising of the representatives of the 10 Political Parties representing in the HOR by the Government in lieu of the former ‘Peace Negotiation Coordination and Advisory Committee’

15 Jun 2006 Second round of negotiation talk at Himalaya Hotel, Kupandol, Lalitpur, and formed a National Monitoring Committee on Ceasefire Code of Conduct (NMCC) and a Peace Talk Observer Team agreeing to request UN OHCHR to facilitate the NMCC on 25-Points Ceasefire Code of Conduct.

16 Jun 2006 First Summit held between Prime Minister G.P.Koirala and Maoist Supremo Prachanda and ended up with a 8-Point Understanding. After following the First Summit, Third round of negotiation talk of both Negotiation Talk Team agreed to form a 6 Member Interim Constitution Draft Committee for drafting the interim constitution.

26 Jun 2006 Fourth round of negotiation talk between the Negotiation Talk Team held at Peace Secretariat and agreed the Terms of Reference and Powers of the NMCC.

15 July 2006 Fifth and Sixth round of negotiation talk of both Negotiation Talk Team held on 15-30 July agreed to re-form a 16 Member Interim Constitution Draft Committee for drafting the interim constitution including Women, Dalit and Indigenous People’s representation on the committee. Fifth round of negotiation talk team have decided the date of Summit II on 21 July 2006.

17 July 2006 The Peace Committee approved the draft of Working Procedures of Local Peace Councils and sends it to the Government for approval.

21 July 2006 Postponement of Summit II to 28 September, 2006.

29 July 2006 Time extension of Ceasefire for Three months by the CPM (Maoist).

31 July 2006 SPA led Government approved the Working Procedures of Local Peace

Councils forwarded by the Peace Committee for approval by the Government.

9 Aug 2006 5-Point request Letter to UN by the leader of the Government and the CPN (Maoist) to provide its assistance for the peace process of Nepal.

25 Aug 2006 Interim Constitution Draft Committee submitted its draft constitution to Negotiation Talk Team.

14 Sep 2006 SPA and CPN(M) preparatory meeting held on Godawari for the preparation of Thursday Summit II and discussion for the content of the draft interim constitution.

23 Sep 2006 A preparatory meeting of the top leaders of the CPN(M), NC(D) and CPN(UML) for Thursday Summit II and agreed for the future of the the monarchy will be decided by a referendum during the election of CA.

25 Sep 2006 SPA Leaders Meeting for final discussion on the political agenda that will be discussed with Maoists on 28th September Summit II.

28 Sep 2006 Postponement of Summit II to 8 October 2006.

8 Oct 2006 First round discussion of Summit II in Prime Minister’s Residence. Representatives of the 8 Party involved in the process and they discuss all issues but could not decide anything.

10 Oct 2006 Second round discussion of Summit II in Prime Minister’s Residence agreed on some issues. The meeting agreed to re-form Election Commission up to 17 October 2006 and will complete the Election of Constituent Assembly up to Mid March of 2007. Meeting also decides that the Interim Government will decide the date of the CA election.

12 Oct 2006 Third and Fourth round discussion of Summit II in Prime Minister’s Residence on 12-15 October. 8 Party involved in the process and they discuss all issues but could not conclude anything.

29 Oct 2006 Time extension of Ceasefire for Three months by the CPM (Maoist).

8 Nov 2006 SPA and Maoist historic agreement and timeline on various issues as follows:

  • Arms Management, Monarchy, Interim Parliament, Interim Government,
  • Interim Local bodies, CA Election, Structure of the State

Timeline:

  • Peace Accord November 16, 2006
  • Cantonment of PLA November 21, 2006
  • Cantonment of NA November 21, 2006
  • Interim Constitution November 21, 2006
  • Declaration of Interim Constitution,
  • Interim Parliament,
  • Disolition of HOR and
  • National Assembly November 26, 2006
  • Interim Government November 31, 2006

21 Nov 2006 Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala of GON and Chairman Prachanda of CPN (Maoist) have signed Comprehensive Peace Accord in the program on BICC is organized by Peace Secretariat.

28 Nov 2006 Negotiation Talk Team of GON and CPN (Maoist) have signed an Agreement on monitoring the management of Arms and Armies.

8 Dec 2006 Negotiation Talk Team of GON, CPN (Maoist) and UN Representative have signed an Agreement on monitoring the management of Arms and Armies

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