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tLh / ko{6g

                                  lxl;nf odL

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o{6g g]kfnsf] ;du| ljsf;sf] nfuL Pp6f k|fs[lts Product xf] . k|foM b]zL÷ljb]zLx?n] oxfFsf] ef}uf]lns ljljwtf, h}ljs ljljwtf df};d ljljwtf -To;dfyL d’ntM lzQn Aircondition df};d_ nfO{ ;lDemG5 . ;u/dfyf, n’lDagL, sfnLu08sL, d’QmLgfy ;lDemG5g\ . r/f r’?ËL, jGohGt’ h8La’6L  herbs ;lDemG5g\ . t/ oxfFsf hgtf ljljwtfdf stL wgL x’G5g\ Tof] ;Demb}gg\ . t/ ljljwtf leq ljj]w klg 5 eg]/ e’Ng x’Gg . 

     g]kfn ca ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftflGqs /fHo eO;Sof] . ;+3Lo ;+/rgfdf hfg nfu]sf] o; ;+qmd0fsflng cj:yfdf ;a} hftL, If]q, lnË, ju{n] cfkm\gf] cl:yTj, klxrfg, clwsf/ vf]hL/x]sf] cj:yfdf g]kfnsf] ko{6gdf ;f+:s[lts ko{6gn]\ yk pmhf{ kfpg] jftfj/0f aGb} uPsf] 5 . u’?ª, du/, lnDa’, ls/ft, g]jf/ cflbx?sf] ;+:s[lt klxnf gePsf] xf]Og, t/ lxhf]sf] b]z PsfTds wd{ ;fk]If ePsfn] ltgLx?sf] ;+:s[lt cf]em]ndf kb}{ uPsf] lyof] cfh b]z wd{ lg/k]If ;+l3o nf]stflGqs u0ftGq ePkl5 ltgLx?sf] hf]z, pd+u a9]sf] 5 . o;n] g]kfnsf] ;f+:s[lts ko{6gdf ljljwtf / ultl;ntf NofPsf] 5 . ;f+:s[lts ko{6gdf product cfkm} hgtf ePsfn] ubf{ of] cGo product eGbf a9L ;[hgfTds, efjgfTds, dgf]j}1flgs, ;b\efjgfTds / ultlzn x’G5g\ . To; dfyL ;a} ;d’bfo, ju{, wd{, If]q, gZn leqsf klg plTkl8t lnË—dlxnfx?sf] dfq rf8{kj{ x’bf To;n] yk ljz]iftf xfl;n ub{5 . o; kl/k]|Ifdf tLh kj{ g]kfnsf] ;f+:s[lts ko{6gdf ljz]if :yfg kfpF5 / kfpFg’ k5{ . 

     s’g} klg rLh product ko{6lso product x’gsf] nfuL To;sf] ljljw kf6fkIf s]nfpg h?/L x’G5 . hlt ljljwtf kf6fkIf x’G5 TotL wgL / TotL b]vfpg nfos x’G5 Tof] b[i6Ln] tLhsf] P]ltxfl;s >f]t, 

To;sf] ;f+:s[lts dxTj, ;fdflhs dxTj, /fhg}lts dxTj, n}lus dxTj / cGt/fli6«o dxTj a’em\g h?/L 5 .

Pltxfl;s dxtjM

     tLh kj{ lzj—kfj{tLsf] syfl;t hf]l8+b} cfPsf] 5 . syg 5 ;”Gb/L kfj{tLnfO{ >L;DktL wgL lji0f’n] ljjfx ug{ rfxfGy] t/ kfj{tL wg ;DktLsf] s’g} jf:tf gu/L ;Gt hf]uL lzjnfO{ kfpg] cf:yfn] / cfzfn] tk:of ug{ yflng\ . pgsf] ToxL tk:ofaf6 k|zlGgt eO{ lzjl;t g} kfj{tLsf] ljjfx eof] . o;/L kfj{tLn] cfkm}n] /f]h]sf] hLjg;fyL kfPsf] v’;LofnLsf] ;Gbe{ lnP/ g} tLh kj{ dgfpFb} cfPsf] b]lvG5 . lzj—kfj{tLsf] k”vf{ lxdfn e”ld g]kfn ePsfn] o; kj{sf] yk /fli6«o dxTj 5 . of] cGttM dlxnfx?s} dfq kj{ lsg aGg uof] Tof] ;f]rlgo 5 . zfob k’?if k|wfg bf; o’u, ;fdGtL o’u kf/ u/L k’+hLjfbL o’udf cfpFbf;Dd dlxnfx? plTkl8t 5g\, plTk8gsf] ?k :j?k dfq km]l/b}5g\ t/ ;f/df k’?if dlxnf ljrsf] lje]b sfod} /x]sfn] ubf{ tLh kj{ dlxnfx?sf] cfzf lg/fzf, hf]z xf]z, ;kgf ljkgfsf] k|lts aGb} uO/x]sf] 5 . ;fy} of] s;/L kfj{tLsf] hLt cGttM r/0fbf;L eO cfkm\gf] kltsf] nfuL j|t a:g kg]{ TotL dfq geO{ kltsf] uf]8f wf]Psf] kfgL vfg;Dd k’u]sf] xf]nf of] ;f]rlgo 5 . 

     ;f+:s[lts dxTjM

tLh kj{ lxGb’ dlxnfx?sf] kj{ xf] . lxhf]sf] cj:yfdf b]z g} lxGb’ , Ps efiff, Ps kf]zs, Ps ;f+:s[ltsf] cjwf/0ffn] tLh kj{n] /fli6«o kj{sf] ?k :yflkt eO{ ;s]sf] 5 . t/ clxn] b]z ;+3Lo ;+/rgfdf hfg] ePsf]n] o;nfO{ ;/sf/af6 TotL k|f]T;fxg ;’ljwf glbPtf klg of] dlxnfsf] rf8{kj{, ;fdflhs, wfdL{s :jtgqtfsf] cleJoQmLn] ubf{ o; k|tLsf] cfsif{0f 36\g] ;+efjgf sd} b]lvG5 . ha;Dd dlxnfx? ljleGg ?kn] zf]lift /xL/xG5g\ juL{o ?kdf ljeflht /xG5g\, wfdL{s ?kdf zf]lift /xG5g\, ;fdflhs ?kdf alxis[t /xG5g\ s’g} g s’g} ?ksf] lkt[ ;QfTds /xG5 ta;Dd g]kfndf tLh kj{ ljleGg ?k /+u lnP/ /xL /xG5 . sf/0f,cleJoQmLsf] :jtGqtfnfO{ s;}n] 5]Sg ;Sb}g . tLh kj{ l;t hf]l8Psf] vfgfsf] k|sf/ ljlzi6 ePsf]n] klg tLh kj{sf] nfuL yk cfsif{0f aGg ;lsG5 . To; dfyL dlxnfx?n] nufpg] klx/g, uLt,gfr, cleJoQmn] ko{6sx?nfO{ d’ntM dlxnf ko{6ssf] nfuL /f]rs aGb} cfPsf] 5 . of]  lxGb’ dlxnfx?sf] rf8{kj{ dgfpFb} cfP klg o; leq dlxnfx?sf] dd{ :jtTqtf ;fdflhs cleJoQmLn]\ x/]s hghftL, If]q, ju{ leqdf dlxnfx?nfO{ cfslif{t ug{ ;kmn x’b} uO/x]sf] 5 . sf/0f, x/]s ;d’bfo leqdf dlxnfx?sf] Joyf Pp6} ;/x 5 To; sf/0f o;nfO{ g]kfnL cf7 dfr{sf] ?kdf ;f]Rg]x? klg 5g\ . 

 ;fdflhs dxTjM

lxGb’ wd{df To;df klg jfx’g If]qLdf dlxnfx? ljjflxt eP kl5 w]/} sd eGbf sd cfkm\gf] dfOtLdf hfg kfpF5 . ;fy} ;fdGtL ;+:s[lt xfjL e}/x]sf] cj:yfdf k|foM ltgLx? ;Gtfg hGdfpg] d]l;g, efG5fdf s}b sfdbf/, kljqtfsf] k|lts /xg] ePsf]n] ;dfhl;t 3’nldn x’g], :jtGqtfl;t gfRg]—ufpg], jf]Ng] lj/n} kfpg] ePsf]n] tLhn] oL ;a} ug{ jftfj/0f lbPsf] x’G5 . h;/L k’/f0fdf kfj{tLnfO{ ha/h:t lji0f’l;t ljjfx ug]{ k|:tfj Nofof] / pgsf ;fyLx?n] ltgLnfO{ arfO{ cGttM lzjl;t g} ljjfx ug{ jftfj/0f agfof] To;/L g} of] kj{df dlxnfx?n] cf—cfkm\gf] ljrs]f efjgfTds ?kdf Ps csf{nfO{ k/]sf] rf]6 dsf{df ;xof]u ;b\efjgf /fVg] lbgs} ?kdf klg tLh dgfOG5 . Ps csf{sf] Joyf, ljb|f]x, cfsf+Iff, cf:yf afF8\g] cleJoQmL lbg] xf] . elgG5 of] lbg dlxnfx? afFw]sf] ufO—uf]? 5f]8sf] a]nf dfQLPsf] em} :jtGq x’G5g\ cyf{t\ ;dfhn] Tof] 5’6 Tof] lbg lbG5 . km]/L g]kfnh:tf] kxf8} kxf8 ePsf] b]z hxfF oftfoftsf] ;’ljwf 5}g ToxfF  r]nLa6LnfO{ 6f9f 6f9f lbg] rngn] klg cfkm\gf] dfOtL cfO/xg] jftfj/0f lj/n} kfOG5 ctM tLhn] dfOtdf ef}lts ?kdf glhs dfq geP/ dgf]j}1flgs, ;fdflhs ?kdf glhs NofOlbG5 . dfOtLdf cf— cfkm\gf jfNo sfnsf ;fyLx?sf] dfOt cfpFbf Ps csf{df Joyf, ;’vM b’vM j6’Ng] ynf] klg aGg hfG5 . o; lsl;dn] o;n] ;fdGtL lkt[ ;QfTds zf]if0faf6 lbSs ePsf dlxnfx?nfO{ o; lbgsf] nfuL ePklg dgf]/~hgsf] efg lbG5 Tof] klg cfkm\gf] kltsf] lb3f{o’sf] gfddf clejflxtsf] nfuL /fd|f] j/ kfpF eGg] gfddf . 

n+}lus dxTj

of] kj{ dlxnfx?n] dfq dgfpg] ePsf]n] dlxnfx?n] of] kj{nfO{ ljleGg lsl;dn] ljZn]if0f ug{ yfn]sf] lblvg5 . juL{o r]tgf;+u ;+u} n}+lus r]tgf ePdf dlxnfx?n] o; kj{nfO{ leGb} lsl;dn] ljZn]if0f u/]sf] kfOG5 eg] n}+lus r]tgf dfq ePsf]n] cfkm\g}] n}+lus lk8fn] o;nfO{ ljZn]if0f ul//fv]sf] lblvG5 . u}/ juL{o n}+lus lk8f ePdf d’ntM wfdL{s sf]0fn] x]g]{ dlxnfx?n] eg] o;nfO{ 5’6} lsl;dn] JofVof u/]sf] b]lvG5 . 

juL{o / n}+lus sf]0fn] x]g]{ dlxnfx?n] tLhnfO{ P]ltxfl;s ef}ltsjfbL b[i6Lsf]0fn] x]5{g\ h; cGtu{t\ ltgLx?n] of] tLhnfO{ P]]ltxfl;s ljsf; cGtu{t\ x]5{g\ cyf{t\ of] d’ntM ;fdGtL k|yfaf6 hGd eO{ o; leq dlxnfx?sf] ljb|f]x kl/jt{gsf] clenfiff, ultl;ntf ;d’xdf j:g rfxfg] cyf{t\ ;+ul7t x’g rfxfg]nfO{ phfu/ u5{g\, eg] o; leqdf kfv08, ljs[tL, ;fdGtL ;+:s[ltnfO{ qmd;M ?kfGt/0f ug{ vf]H5 . hasL n}+lus b[i6Lsf0fn] x]g]{ dlxnfx?n] o;nfO{ lvNnL p8fpg], P]ltxfl;s ljsf;af6 gx]/Lsg jt{dfgsf] kl/j]zdf dfq x]bf{ of] dlxnf lj/f]wL cleJoQmLsf] ?kdf x]5{g\ . cGttM cfkm’nfO{ o;af6 cnUofpF5g\ / o;nfO{ lgif]w ug{ vf]H5g\ . oßkL o:tf cleJoQmLn] kf}/fl0fs ;f]r /fVg], wfdL{s ;f]r /fVg] dlxnfx?nfO{ k|Zg ug]{ 7fpF lbG5 . cfkm\g} l/ltl/jfhsf] af/]df kZrufdL ;f]r /fVg] wfdL{s dlxnfx?n] tLhnfO{ cIf/;M kfngf ug{ vf]H5g\ . o;n] ubf{ ltgLx?n] dlxnf—k’?if ljrsf] ;fdGtL ;DaGw oyfjt /fVg hf]8 lbG5g\ . 5’t—c5’t sfod /fVg vf]H5g\, dlxnfnfO{ k|hgg\ zQmLsf] ?kdf l;ldt /fVg vf]H5g\ . 

/fhg}lts dxTjM

sfnfGt/df tLh kj{ ax’bn Joj:yf;+u ;+u} ljleGg /fhg}lts kf6L{x?sf] nfuL cf—cfkm\gf dlxnf df]rf{sf nfuL sfo{qmd ug]{, ;+ul7t ug]{, k|lzIf0f lbg] ynf] ag]sf] 5 . kGrfotsf] a]nf kGrfot lj/f]wL cfGbf]ngsf] ?kdf tLh dgfPsf] lblvG5 eg] ax’bn cfPkl5 cfkm\gf] ljrf/;+u km\o”hg u/L uLt ufpg] gfRg] ;fwg ag]sf] 5 . cu|ufdL zQmLn] dlxnfx?nfO{ ;fdGtL aGwgaf6 tf]8]/ gofF cu|ufdL dlxnf—k’?if ;DaGw a9fpg] af6f] b]vf5g\ eg] kZrufdL zQmLn] dlxnfx?nfO{ wfdL{sf ;fdGtL ;DaGwdf g} s}b ug{ vf]Hb5 . dWodk+yL 9’nd’n]  /fhg}lts zQmLn] eg] of] kj{nfO{ vLr8L agfpg vf]H5 g xfF;sf] rfn g as’Nnfsf] rfn cyf{t\ ToxfF leq ;fdGtL, ;fd|fHojfb cyf{t\ wfdL{s pkef]Qmjfb ld;fO lbG5 / cGttM oyfl:yltjfbnfO{ 6]jf k’¥ofO lbG5 . cGttM ;a} /fhg}lts zQmLn] o; kj{nfO{ g]kfnsf] cf7 dfr{ ;/x dxTj lbP/ dgfPsf] b]lvG5 .

cGt/f{li6«o dxTj     

dlxnf zf]if0f cfwf/e”t zf]if0f ePsf]n] ubf{ o;sf] s’g} l;df 5}g . ctM o;sf] cG/f{li6«o cfwf/ 5 . ;a} bzdf s’g} g s’g} ?kdf dlxnf zf]if0f sfod 5 . dfqf / u’0fdf dfq km/s b]lvG5 . cem e’d08nLs/0fn] n}+lus r]tgf juL{o r]tgf;+u ;+u} ljsf; x’b} uO/x]sf] 5 . ;fy} lj1fg k|ljlwsf] b|’t ljsf;n] ljZj e/L oftfoft ug{, ljrf/ cfbfg k|bfg ug{ ;lhnf] eO{/x]sf] kl/l:yltdf ljZjdf dlxnfx?sf] nfuL tLh dlxnfx?sf] ;fd’lxs, dgf]j}1flgs, ;f+:s[lts, ;b\efjgfTds, wfdL{s, kl/jt{gfTds, ljb|f]xfTds, n}+lus r]tgfsf] cleJoQmL aGb} uO/x]sf] 5 . n}+lus lzIff research sf] nfuL ljifo ag]sf] 5 cem b]z ;+3Lo ;+/rgfdf uO/x]sf] cj:yfdf lxGb’ cfof{g ;d’bfon] o;nfO{ cfkm\gf] klxrfgsf] ?kdf lj:tf/ ug{ vf]h]sf] b]lvG5 . o;nfO{ ;dfj]zL agfP/ cem km}ng vf]h]sf] b]lvG5 . ca t g]kfndf dlxnfx? cGt/f{li6«o If]qdf sfdbf/, kl/jf/sf] ?kdf aflxl/b} 5 . ljb]zdf /xFbf ckm\gf klxrfg ;+:s[ltsf] ofb, ddtf cem a9\g] ePsf]n ljb]zdf ;d]t tLh dgfpg yfn]sf] b]lvg5 . ctM ljb]zL ko{6sx?n] tLhsf] ;SsnL ?k g]kfndf vf]Hg cfpg] qmd klg a9\bf] 5 . o;/L tLhn] cGt/f{li6«o cfsf/ lnb}5 . g]kfndf s’6lglts If]qdf, ljsf;sf] If]qdf ljb]zL dlxnfx? cfpg] ;+Vof a9\b}5 . ltgLx?sf] nfuL klg tLh kj{ lh1f;fsf] ljifo aGb} uPsf] 5 . 

pk;+xf/

h’g ;d’bfon]  tLh kj{nfO{ h;/L lnPtf klg o;n] ;f+:s[lts ko{6gsf] If]qdf cem ljljwtf, uxgtf, /f}gstf, /f]rstf NofO/x]sf] 5 . vfgfsf] kl/sf/, n’uf nufpg] ljz]iftf, wfdL{s l/ltl/jfh, dgf]/~hg, ;flxToLs cleJoQmL, ;fd’lxs cleJoQmL, n}+lus cleJoQmL, ljb|f]xfTds cleJoQmL ;a} ;sf/ / gsf/ ;lxt tLh kj{ g]kfnsf] ljlzi6 ko{6sLo, n}+lus product ag]sf] 5 . @)!! g]kfnsf] ko{6sLo jif{ ePsf]n] tLh kj{nfO{ cab]vL g} correct perspective df nfUg h?/L 5 . ljb]zL kfx’gfx?nfO{ klg o;df ;dfj]z u/L nUbf s:tf] xf]nf of] ;f]rlgo 5 . 

@)^^÷$÷@*

gf]6M—o;sf] efiff ;Dkfbg Ps k6s x]/L lbg’ xf]nf .

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